Dating and relating lj
The findings from Exner-Cortens’ study support those from other studies showing an increased risk of violence re-victimization in late adolescence/young adulthood if experienced earlier in adolescence [1, 2, 17].Despite the strengths of the Exner-Cortens’ study (longitudinal design, large sample affording a separate assessment of how violence types impacted health outcomes) , the violence assessment was limited.Among females, studies have shown an association between having a history of physical and/or sexual dating violence victimization and poor health during adolescence—including depression [3–5]; anxiety and stress symptoms ; suicide ideation and/or attempts [5, 7–11]; smoking, alcohol and drug use [3, 5, 8, 10]; disordered eating (e.g., using laxatives and/or vomiting to lose weight) [8, 10, 11]; contracting a sexually transmitted disease [12, 13]; having multiple sex partners ; pregnancy [8, 14]; and diminished quality of life .Male victims of physical and/or sexual dating violence during adolescence are at increased risk of disordered eating [4, 5]; anxiety, stress symptoms and depression [4–6]; suicidal ideation and/or attempts [4, 5]; smoking, alcohol and drug use [4, 5, 10]; and diminished emotional well-being .Compared to non-exposed males, males with non-physical dating violence only were at increased risk of smoking (PR = 3.91) and disordered eating (fasting, using diet aids, vomiting, PR = 2.93).
Asking subjects details about dating violence first, which could be a traumatic experience, could potentially cause bias in their responses to the health items; specifically, subjects might provide lower health ratings if the experience of completing the dating violence questions was traumatic .
The present investigation expands upon prior studies by examining the relationship between health in late adolescence and the experience of physical/sexual and non-physical dating violence victimization, including dating violence types that are relevant to today’s adolescents (e.g., harassment via email and text messaging).
We examined the relationship between physical/sexual and non-physical dating violence victimization from age 13 to 19 and health in late adolescence/early adulthood.
Namely, violence victimization was assessed using five questions (called names/insulted; sworn at; threatened with violence; pushed/shoved; and had something thrown that could hurt).
The assessment did not cover the range of violence types (physical, sexual, and non-physical abuse) recommended for assessment by the U. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [18–20], including violence types relevant to today’s adolescents, such as harassment/stalking via text messaging, email, and social media [21, 22].
The analytic sample comprised 585 subjects ages 18 to 21 enrolled at The Ohio State University, recruited in two data collection efforts.