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The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia.
The Czech state was formed in the late ninth century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire.
Increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in 1968 to the reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion.
Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, which peacefully ended communist rule and reestablished democracy and a market economy.
It is also a member of the OECD, the United Nations, the OSCE, and the Council of Europe.
The traditional English name "Bohemia" derives from Latin "Boiohaemum", which means "home of the Boii".
The Protestant Bohemian Revolt (1618–20) against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years' War.
After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, eradicated Protestantism, reimposed Catholicism, and adopted a policy of gradual Germanization.
The Czech Republic is a developed country with an advanced, high income social market economy.
In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire along with the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy; and became the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198, reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century.
Prague was the imperial seat in periods between the 14th and 17th century.
It is a welfare state with a European social model, universal health care, and tuition-free university education.
It ranks 15th in the UN inequality-adjusted human development and 14th in the World Bank Human Capital Index ahead of countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom and France.
It is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.6 million inhabitants.