Developing and validating a nursing website evaluation questionnaire
There is little difference in difficulty, discrimination, and test score reliability among items containing two, three, and four distractors. , in which some or all of the alternatives consist of different combinations of options.
As with “all of the above” answers, a sophisticated test-taker can use partial knowledge to achieve a correct answer. Savvy test-takers can use information in one question to answer another question, reducing the validity of the test.
In addition, the objective scoring associated with multiple choice test items frees them from problems with scorer inconsistency that can plague scoring of essay questions.
Validity is the degree to which a test measures the learning outcomes it purports to measure.
Because students can typically answer a multiple choice item much more quickly than an essay question, tests based on multiple choice items can typically focus on a relatively broad representation of course material, thus increasing the validity of the assessment.
The key to taking advantage of these strengths, however, is construction of good multiple choice items.
When writing multiple choice items to test higher-order thinking, design questions that focus on higher levels of cognition as defined by Bloom’s taxonomy.
A stem that presents a problem that requires application of course principles, analysis of a problem, or evaluation of alternatives is focused on higher-order thinking and thus tests students’ ability to do such thinking.
The alternatives consist of one correct or best alternative, which is the answer, and incorrect or inferior alternatives, known as distractors. A stem that does not present a clear problem, however, may test students’ ability to draw inferences from vague descriptions rather serving as a more direct test of students’ achievement of the learning outcome. Students often have difficulty understanding items with negative phrasing (Rodriguez 1997).
As a result of the Bologna Process the educational systems in all European countries are in the process of reforming and harmonization.
Accordingly, at the European Higher Education Space the learning model has been built on competence-based education (CBE).
Common student errors provide the best source of distractors. Sophisticated test-takers are alert to inadvertent clues to the correct answer, such differences in grammar, length, formatting, and language choice in the alternatives.
It’s therefore important that alternatives When “all of the above” is used as an answer, test-takers who can identify more than one alternative as correct can select the correct answer even if unsure about other alternative(s).
EBP-COQ appears to measure with adequate reliability the attributes of undergraduate nursing students’ competence in EBP.