Roman empire dating system
The Roman Empire was a post-antiquity superpower that ruled most of Europe, North Africa and parts of the Middle East from roughly the 1st century BCE. The last remnants of the Roman Empire (the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantine Empire) fell to the Ottomans in the mid-15th century.
Originating in Italy, the Roman Empire represented the direct successor to the Roman Republic, which had already established the Roman city-state as a dominant force in the West a couple centuries earlier.
It is important to note that by this time, the official class structures of plebeian and patrician had broken down by repeated general strikes.
Instead, Rome by the 1st century BC was stratified directly by socio-economic class instead of ancestral castes.
This kingdom came to an abrupt end during the reign of the 7th king of Rome, Tarquin the Proud.
After Carthage's defeat, the fall of the Republic began to accelerate.
Over time, the depletion of labour from Rome's traditionally citizen-based army and the emergence of a generally unemployed and uneducated urban lower class allowed for the rise of charismatic generals like Gaius Marius.
The first of which was the unification of the Italic peninsula, which was done over the course of hundreds of years.
When the Italic peninsula was brought under Roman control, the Republic began to expand into Sicily, bringing it into conflict with Carthage, sparking the First Punic War.
The Third Punic War was declared as soon as reparation payments from Carthage had ended.