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Gender identity—our sense of being male or female—develops early in life.
By age 2 years, most children are able to identify their own gender, which is typically consistent with the sex they were at birth (1, 2).
For instance, an increased prevalence of gender dysphoria was observed among people who experienced atypical prenatal androgen exposure , such as females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (8–15).
Neuroimaging studies revealed specific regions in the brains of transgender women that may be more similar to the brains of women serving as control subjects (than that of men serving as control subjects (16–18).
It is proposed that functional variants may alter sex hormone signaling, causing atypical sexual differentiation of the developing brains of those who will later experience gender dysphoria (20).
The etiology of gender dysphoria is unknown, yet the reported prevalence has been increasing, with most estimates suggesting that as many as 521 in 100,000 males and 265 in 100,000 females experience gender dysphoria (5).Yet, a small percentage of people will report substantial clinical distress because their sex at birth does not reflect their gender identity (3).In extreme cases, patients will be given the diagnosis of gender dysphoria and may undergo medical treatments to better align their anatomy and physiology with their gender identity.Study subjects who identified themselves as nonwhite were excluded.Ethics approval for this study was obtained from Monash Medical Centre and UCLA, and consent procedures adhered to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki.
We determined the allele and genotype frequencies of variable polymorphic lengths of seven genes and SNPs of five genes in Caucasian (non-Latino) transgender women and compared these with Caucasian (non-Latino) male control subjects.